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Our science

JP Russel Science Global Ltd has chosen to use the word ‘science’ in its name for a reason. Science stands for innovation.

RSG has chosen to only develop products that are natural and on which extensive scientific research has been carried out.

The science related to these natural substances has led RSG to make the decision to manufacture products free of chemical and pharmaceutical additives. That is why PeaPure capsules only contain palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a pure and natural substance produced by the body. PEA is known as a natural substance as early as 1957. In the 1990s, the scientific basis of the effectiveness of PEA gained momentum thanks to the work of Nobel Prize winner Professor Rita Levi-Montalcini.

Since 1957, more than 400 scientific articles have been published about the physiological effects of PEA. In order to give you an idea of the studies that have been carried out about this substance we have provided a selection below:

Cipriano M, Esposito G, Negro L, Capoccia E, Sarnelli G, Scuderi C, de Filippis D, Steardo L, Iuvone T.

Palmitoylethanolamide regulates production of pro-angiogenic mediators in a model of β amyloid-induced astrogliosis in vitro. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015 Mar 17.

Lin TY, Lu CW, Wu CC, Huang SK, Wang SJ.

Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits glutamate release in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Mar 11;16(3):5555-71.

Tomasini MC, Borelli AC, Beggiato S, Ferraro L, Cassano T, Tanganelli S, Antonelli T.

Differential Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide against Amyloid-β Induced Toxicity in Cortical Neuronal and Astrocytic Primary Cultures from Wild-Type and 3xTg-AD Mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015 Mar 12.

Azim S, Nicholson J, Rebecchi MJ, Galbavy W, Feng T, Reinsel R, Volkow ND, Benveniste H, Kaczocha M.

Endocannabinoids and acute pain after total knee arthroplasty. Pain. 2015 Feb;156(2):341-7. doi: 10.1097/01.j.pain.0000460315.80981.59.

Petrosino S, Schiano Moriello A, Cerrato S, Fusco M, Puigdemont A, De Petrocellis L, Di Marzo V.

The anti-inflammatory mediator palmitoylethanolamide enhances the levels of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and potentiates its actions at TRPV1 cation channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Jan 19. doi: 10.1111/bph.13084.

Kriek R.

Commentaar op de effectiviteit van een bepaalde PEA formulering bij de behandeling van perifere neuropathische pijn. Pain Res Treat. 2014;2014:849689. doi: 10.1155/2014/849689. Epub 2014 Nov 27. No abstract available. PMID: 25538851

Liput DJ, Tsakalozou E, Hammell DC, Paudel KS, Nixon K, Stinchcomb AL.

Quantification of anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide in rodent brain tissue using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectroscopy. J Pharm Anal. 2014 Aug;4(4):234-241.

Rahimi A, Faizi M, Talebi F, Noorbakhsh F, Kahrizi F, Naderi N.

Interaction between the protective effects of cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide in experimental model of multiple sclerosis in C57BL/6 mice. Neuroscience. 2015 Apr 2;290:279-87. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.01.030. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

Pessina F, Capasso R, Borrelli F, Aveta T, Buono L, Valacchi G, Fiorenzani P, Di Marzo V, Orlando P, Izzo AA.

Protective Effect of Palmitoylethanolamide in a Rat Model of Cystitis. J Urol. 2014 Nov 18. pii: S0022-5347(14)04930-1. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2014.11.083.

Alhouayek M, Bottemanne P, Subramanian KV, Lambert DM, Makriyannis A, Cani PD, Muccioli GG.

N-Acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase inhibition increases colon N-palmitoylethanolamine levels and counteracts murine colitis. FASEB J. 2015 Feb;29(2):650-61. doi: 10.1096/fj.14-255208. Epub 2014 Nov 10.

Nigro A, Nicastro A, Trodella R.

Retrospective observational study to investigate Sinerga, a multifactorial nutritional product, and bacterial extracts in the prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2014 Jul-Sep;27(3):455-60.

Amoako AA, Marczylo TH, Elson J, Taylor AH, Willets JM, Konje JC.

Relationship between seminal plasma levels of anandamide congeners palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide and semen quality. Fertil Steril. 2014 Nov;102(5):1260-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.07.767. Epub 2014 Sep 8. PMID: 25212838

Borrelli F, Romano B, Petrosino S, Pagano E, Capasso R, Coppola D, Battista G, Orlando P, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA.

Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid, is an orally effective intestinal anti-inflammatory agent. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Jan;172(1):142-58. doi: 10.1111/bph.12907. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

González-Hernández A, Martínez-Lorenzana G, Rodríguez-Jiménez J, Rojas-Piloni G, Condés-Lara M.

Intracisternal injection of palmitoylethanolamide inhibits the peripheral nociceptive evoked responses of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons. J Neural Transm. 2015 Mar;122(3):369-74. doi: 10.1007/s00702-014-1255-6. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Wang J, Zheng J, Kulkarni A, Wang W, Garg S, Prather PL, Hauer-Jensen M.

Palmitoylethanolamide regulates development of intestinal radiation injury in a mast cell-dependent manner. Dig Dis Sci. 2014 Nov;59(11):2693-703. doi: 10.1007/s10620-014-3212-5. Epub 2014 May 22.

Mattace Raso G, Russo R, Calignano A, Meli R.

Palmitoylethanolamide in CNS health and disease. Pharmacol Res. 2014 Aug;86:32-41. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.05.006. Epub 2014 May 17. Review.PMID: 24844438

Costagliola C, Romano MR, dell'Omo R, Russo A, Mastropasqua R, Semeraro F.

Effect of palmitoylethanolamide on visual field damage progression in normal tension glaucoma patients: results of an open-label six-month follow-up. J Med Food. 2014 Sep;17(9):949-54. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2013.0165. Epub 2014 May 14.

Yuan C, Wang XM, Guichard A, Tan YM, Qian CY, Yang LJ, Humbert P.

N-palmitoylethanolamine and N-acetylethanolamine are effective in asteatotic eczema: results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled study in 60 patients. Clin Interv Aging. 2014 Jul 17;9:1163-9. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S65448. eCollection 2014.

Capasso R, Orlando P, Pagano E, Aveta T, Buono L, Borrelli F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA.

Palmitoylethanolamide normalizes intestinal motility in a model of post-inflammatory accelerated transit: involvement of CB₁ receptors and TRPV1 channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Sep;171(17):4026-37. doi: 10.1111/bph.12759.

Schifilliti C, Cucinotta L, Fedele V, Ingegnosi C, Luca S, Leotta C.

Micronized palmitoylethanolamide reduces the symptoms of neuropathic pain in diabetic patients. Pain Res Treat. 2014;2014:849623. doi: 10.1155/2014/849623. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Ghafouri N, Ghafouri B, Fowler CJ, Larsson B, Turkina MV, Karlsson L, Gerdle B.

Effects of two different specific neck exercise interventions on palmitoylethanolamide and stearoylethanolamide concentrations in the interstitium of the trapezius muscle in women with chronic neck shoulder pain. Pain Med. 2014 Aug;15(8):1379-89. doi: 10.1111/pme.12486. Epub 2014 Jul 4.

Kriek R.

Marketing messages in pharmacological papers and scientific chapters: the case of palmitoylethanolamide and its formulations. Pharmacol Res. 2014 Jul;85:1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.04.007. Epub 2014 Apr 24. No abstract available. PMID: 24769196

Keppel Hesselink JM, Kopsky DJ, Sajben NL.

Vulvodynia and proctodynia treated with topical baclofen 5 % and palmitoylethanolamide. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014 Aug;290(2):389-93. doi: 10.1007/s00404-014-3218-4. Epub 2014 Apr 2. PMID: 24691823

Cocito D, Peci E, Ciaramitaro P, Merola A, Lopiano L.

Short-term efficacy of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide in peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain Res Treat. 2014;2014:854560. doi: 10.1155/2014/854560. Epub 2014 May 20.

Alhouayek M, Muccioli GG.

Harnessing the anti-inflammatory potential of palmitoylethanolamide. Drug Discov Today. 2014 Oct;19(10):1632-9. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2014.06.007. Epub 2014 Jun 17. PMID: 24952959

Redlich S, Ribes S, Schütze S, Nau R.

Palmitoylethanolamide stimulates phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by macrophages and increases the resistance of mice against infections. J Neuroinflammation. 2014 Jun 14;11:108. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-11-108.

Scuderi C, Stecca C, Valenza M, Ratano P, Bronzuoli MR, Bartoli S, Steardo L, Pompili E, Fumagalli L, Campolongo P, Steardo L.

Palmitoylethanolamide controls reactive gliosis and exerts neuroprotective functions in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis. 2014 Sep 11;5:e1419. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2014.376.

Fidaleo M, Fanelli F, Ceru MP, Moreno S. 

Neuroprotective Properties of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARα) and its Lipid Ligands. Curr Med Chem. 2014 Mar 3. 

Kriek R.

Inflammopharmacology. 2014 Jun;22(3):195-8. doi: 10.1007/s10787-014-0202-3. Epub 2014 Mar 20. Review. PMID: 24647619

Coppola M, Mondola R.

Is there a role for palmitoylethanolamide in the treatment of depression? Med Hypotheses. 2014 May;82(5):507-11. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2013.12.016. Epub 2014 Mar 3.PMID: 24630855

Bystrowska B, Smaga I, Tyszka-Czochara M, Filip M.

Troubleshooting in LC-MS/MS method for determining endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid-like molecules in rat brain structures applied to assessing the brain endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system significance. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2014 Feb 27.

Grygiel-Górniak B.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their ligands: nutritional and clinical implications - a review. Nutr J. 2014 Feb 14;13(1):17. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-17

Cairns BE, Laursen JC, Dong XD, Gazerani P.

Intraganglionic injection of a nitric oxide donator induces afferent mechanical sensitization that is attenuated by palmitoylethanolamide. Cephalalgia. 2014 Feb 11.

De Filippis D, Russo A, De Stefano D, Cipriano M, Esposito D, Grassia G, Carnuccio R, Russo G, Iuvone T.

Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits rMCP-5 expression by regulating MITF activation in rat chronic granulomatous inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 15;725:64-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.12.021. Epub 2014 Jan 16.

Mattace RG, Santoro A, Russo R, Simeoli R, Paciello O, Di CC, Diano S, Calignano A, Meli R.

Palmitoylethanolamide prevents metabolic alterations and restores leptin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology. 2014 Jan 15:en20131823.

Abramo F, Campora L, Albanese F, della Valle MF, Cristino L, Petrosino S, Di Marzo V, Miragliotta V. 

Increased levels of palmitoylethanolamide and other bioactive lipid mediators and enhanced local mast cell proliferation in canine atopic dermatitis. BMC Vet Res. 2014 Jan 14;10:21. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-21.

Holman EA, Guijarro A, Lim J, Piomelli D.

Effects of acute stress on cardiac endocannabinoids, lipogenesis, and inflammation in rats. Psychosom Med. 2014 Jan;76(1):20-8. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000025. Epub 2013 Dec 23.

Okine BN, Rea K, Olango WM, Price J, Herdman S, Madasu MK, Roche M, Finn DP.

A role for PPARα in the medial prefrontal cortex in formalin-evoked nociceptive responding in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;171(6):1462-71. doi: 10.1111/bph.12540.

Sałaga M, Sobczak M, Fichna J.

Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases in the gastrointestinal tract. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2014 Feb 14;52:173-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2013.11.012. Epub 2013 Nov 23.

Maroof N, Pardon MC, Kendall DA.

Endocannabinoid signalling in Alzheimer's disease. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013 Dec;41(6):1583-7. doi: 10.1042/BST20130140.

Skaper SD, Facci L, Fusco M, Della Valle MF, Zusso M, Costa B, Giusti P.

Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring disease-modifying agent in neuropathic pain. Inflammopharmacology. 2014 Apr;22(2):79-94. doi: 10.1007/s10787-013-0191-7. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Galdino G, Romero TR, Silva JF, Aguiar DC, de Paula AM, Cruz JS, Parrella C, Piscitelli F, Duarte ID, Di Marzo V, Perez AC.

The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Feb;77:313-24. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.09.022. Epub 2013 Oct 19.

Melis M, Carta G, Pistis M, Banni S.
Physiological role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type alpha on dopamine systems. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):70-7.

Hansen HS.
Effect of diet on tissue levels of palmitoylethanolamide. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):17-25.

Luongo L, Guida F, Boccella S, Bellini G, Gatta L, Rossi F, de Novellis V, Maione S. 

Palmitoylethanolamide reduces formalin-induced neuropathic-like behaviour through spinal glial/microglial phenotypical changes in mice. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):45-54.

De Filippis D, Negro L, Vaia M, Cinelli MP, Iuvone T.

New insights in mast cell modulation by palmitoylethanolamide. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):78-83.

di Marzo V, Skaper SD.
Palmitoylethanolamide: biochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic use of a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory lipid mediator. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):4-6. No abstract available.
PMID: 23394521.

Rea K, Olango WM, Harhen B, Kerr DM, Galligan R, Fitzgerald S, Moore M, Roche M, Finn DP.
Evidence for a role of GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling in the basolateral amygdala in endocannabinoid-mediated fear-conditioned analgesia in rats.
Pain. 2013 Apr;154(4):576-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.12.021. Epub 2012 Dec 31.

Starowicz K, Makuch W, Korostynski M, Malek N, Slezak M, Zychowska M, Petrosino S, De Petrocellis L, Cristino L, Przewlocka B, Di Marzo V.

Full inhibition of spinal FAAH leads to TRPV1-mediated analgesic effects in neuropathic rats and possible lipoxygenase-mediated remodeling of anandamide metabolism. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e60040. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060040. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Ghafouri N, Ghafouri B, Larsson B, Stensson N, Fowler CJ, Gerdle B. 

Palmitoylethanolamide and stearoylethanolamide levels in the interstitium of the trapezius muscle of women with chronic widespread pain and chronic neck-shoulder pain correlate with pain intensity and sensitivity. Pain. 2013 Sep;154(9):1649-58. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.002.Epub 2013 May 14.

Skaper SD, Facci L, Giusti P.

Mast cells, glia and neuroinflammation: partners in crime?
Immunology. 2013 Sep 11. doi: 10.1111/imm.12170.

Luongo L, Guida F, Boccella S, Bellini G, Gatta L, Rossi F, de Novellis V, Maione S.

Palmitoylethanolamide reduces formalin-induced neuropathic-like behaviour through spinal glial/microglial phenotypical changes in mice.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):45-54.

Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S.
Palmitoylethanolamide in homeostatic and traumatic central nervous system injuries. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):55-61.

Balvers MG, Verhoeckx KC, Meijerink J, Wortelboer HM, Witkamp RF.

Measurement of palmitoylethanolamide and other N-acylethanolamines during physiological and pathological conditions. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):23-33.

Tsuboi K, Ikematsu N, Uyama T, Deutsch DG, Tokumura A, Ueda N,
Biosynthetic pathways of bioactive N-acylethanolamines in brain. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):7-16.

Scuderi C, Steardo L.
Neuroglial roots of neurodegenerative diseases: therapeutic potential of palmitoylethanolamide in models of Alzheimer's disease.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):62-9.

Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S.
Palmitoylethanolamide in homeostatic and traumatic central nervous system injuries. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2013 Feb 1;12(1):55-61.

Taylor BK.

N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), a new path to unleash PPAR-mediated analgesia.
Pain. 2013 Mar;154(3):326-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.12.012. Epub 2012 Dec 28.

Lenglet S, Thomas A, Soehnlein O, Montecucco F, Burger F, Pelli G, Galan K, Cravatt B, Staub C, Steffens S.
Fatty acid amide hydrolase deficiency enhances intraplaque neutrophil recruitment in atherosclerotic mice.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Feb;33(2):215-23. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300275. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Sasso O, Moreno-Sanz G, Martucci C, Realini N, Dionisi M, Mengatto L, Duranti A, Tarozzo G, Tarzia G, Mor M, Bertorelli R, Reggiani A, Piomelli D.
Anti-nociceptive effects of the N-acylethanolamine acid amidase inhibitor ARN077 in rodent pain models.
Pain. 2013 Mar;154(3):350-60. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.10.018. Epub 2012 Nov 2.

Citraro R, Russo E, Scicchitano F, van Rijn CM, Cosco D, Avagliano C, Russo R, D'Agostino G, Petrosino S, Guida F, Gatta L, van Luijtelaar G, Maione S, Di Marzo V, Calignano A, De Sarro G.

Anti-epileptic effect of N-palmitoylethanolamine via the CB1 and PPAR-α mechanism in a model of absence. epilepsie.
Neuropharmacology. 2013 Jun;69:115-26. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.11.017.

Lin L, Yang H, Jones PJ.
Quantitative analysis of multiple fatty acid ethanolamides using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.
2012 Dec;87(6):189-95. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2012.09.001. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Romero TR, Pacheco Dda F, Duarte ID.
Probable involvement of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) in the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors.
Life Sci. 2013 May 2;92(14-16):815-20. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2012.10.006. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Skaper SD, Facci L,
Mast cell-glia axis in neuroinflammation and therapeutic potential of the anandamide congener palmitoylethanolamide.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Dec 5;367(1607):3312-25. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0391. Review.

Starowicz K, Przewlocka B.
Modulation of neuropathic-pain-related behaviour by the spinal endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Dec 5;367(1607):3286-99. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0392. Review.

Ambrosino P, Soldovieri MV, Russo C, Taglialatela M.

Activation and desensitization of TRPV1 channels in sensory neurons by the PPARα agonist palmitoylethanolamide. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;168(6):1430-44. doi: 10.1111/bph.12029.

Khasabova IA, Xiong Y, Coicou LG, Piomelli D, Seybold V.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α mediates acute effects of palmitoylethanolamide on sensory neurons.
J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 12;32(37):12735-43. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0130-12.2012.

Li Y, Yang L, Chen L, Zhu C, Huang R, Zheng X, Qiu Y, Fu J.
Design and synthesis of potent N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) inhibitor as anti-inflammatory compounds.
PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43023. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043023. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

Di Paola R, Impellizzeri D, Mondello P, Velardi E, Aloisi C, Cappellani A, Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S.

Palmitoylethanolamide beschermt de nieren tegen beschadigingen bij zuurstoftekort in een muizenmodel:
Palmitoylethanolamide reduces early renal dysfunction and injury caused by experimental ischemia and reperfusion in mice.
Shock. 2012 Oct;38(4):356-66.

Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S.

Palmitoylethanolamide is a new possible pharmacological treatment for the inflammation associated with trauma.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013 Feb;13(2):237-55. Review.

Kumar A, Qiao Z, Kumar P, Song ZH.

Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on aqueous humor outflow.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jul 3;53(8):4416-25. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-9294.

Palomba R, Bonaccia P, Graffi M, Costa F.

The novel therapeuthic targets in the treatment of chronic pain.
Transl Med UniSa. 2012 Apr 30;3:57-61. Print 2012 May.
PMID: 23905053 [PubMed] Free PMC Article.

Skaper SD.
Conference report: 1st workshop on "palmitoylethanolamide: biochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic use of a pleiotropic anti-inflammatory lipid mediator".
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2012 May;11(3):191.

Di Paola R, Impellizzeri D, Torre A, Mazzon E, Cappellani A, Faggio C, Esposito E, Trischitta F, Cuzzocrea S.
Effects of palmitoylethanolamide on intestinal injury and inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion in mice.
J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Jun;91(6):911-20. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0911485. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

Romano MR, Lograno MD.
Involvement of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha in vascular response of endocannabinoids in the bovine ophthalmic artery.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 May 15;683(1-3):197-203. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.02.049. Epub 2012 Mar 10.

Romero TR, Galdino GS, Silva GC, Resende LC, Perez AC, Cortes SF, Duarte ID.

Involvement of the L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in peripheral antinociception induced by N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine in rats.
J Neurosci Res. 2012 Jul;90(7):1474-9. doi: 10.1002/jnr.22797. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Romero TR, Duarte ID.
N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA) induces peripheral antinociceptive effect by ATP-sensitive K+-channel activation.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118(2):156-60.